The thyroid is a little gland that sits like a butterfly at the bottom of the trachea, right on top of the collarbone. It is the main organ that helps our body set its metabolism. It is essential for people living with diabetes to measure thyroid labs at least once per year.
If the thyroid is not functioning well, it can increase glucose levels, decrease energy, cause water retention, and cause many other symptoms that can negatively affect getting diabetes under control.
Insulin resistance, which drives T2DM, can interfere with the production of thyroxine, the main hormone your thyroid makes. Also, elevated cortisol levels—a hormone produced by the adrenals—can interfere with thyroid production, and decreased cortisol can inhibit the thyroid’s effect of stimulating metabolism in your cells.
People living with Type 1 diabetes have an increased risk of developing thyroid disease if they also have celiac disease, especially if the celiac disease is undiagnosed.
Full thyroid panel:
- TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone)
- Free T4 (thyroxine)
- Free T3 (triiodothyronine)
- Reverse T3 (reverse triiodothyronine)
- Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Ab)
- Thyroglobulin antibodies (TG Ab)
The recommended reference ranges for these tests are as follows:
- TSH: 0.4-4.0 mIU/L
- Free T4: 0.9-1.8 ng/dL
- Free T3: 2.3-4.2 pg/mL
- Reverse T3: 9.2-24.1 ng/dL
- TPO Ab: less than 9 IU/mL
- TG Ab: less than 4 IU/mL
- T3 : 1.23 -3.07 nmol/l
- T4: 66 -181 nmol/l
It is important to note that reference ranges may vary slightly between different laboratories and depend on the individual’s age, gender, and other factors. It is always best to discuss your results with a healthcare provider who can interpret them in the context of your specific situation
– Thyroglobulin antibodies. This measures antibodies against thyroglobulin, the protein molecule from which thyroid hormones are made. It is often elevated in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, the main cause of hypothyroidism in the United States.
– Thyroid peroxidase antibodies. This measures antibodies against an enzyme that helps attach iodine to tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin. It is often elevated in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, the main cause of hypothyroidism in the United States.
– Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI). This measures antibodies against the thyroid receptor of TSH, and it is elevated in Graves’ disease, that is, hyperthyroidism.
Thyroid labs should be measured yearly; they should be done earlier in the morning, ideally before 11 a.m., to match the natural physiologic rise of thyroid levels in our body.
Thyroid medicine must be taken on a stomach that has been completely empty of food, other medications, and supplements for at least an hour.
Visit us at DMMC Ngara for a Thyroid Function test.